Cold Forging

/Cold Forging
Cold Forging 2018-01-09T02:04:13+00:00

Cold Forging

What Is Cold Forging?

Cold forging deforms metal below its recrystallization point – near to or at room temperature. A preferred forging method for softer metals (such as aluminum), cold forging is less expensive and has the ability to produced forged parts that require little or no finishing processes.

cold forging parts

How are Cold Forgings Made?

Basically, cold forging process entails bar stock to be inserted into a die and then squeezed with a second closed die. Similar to the cold heading process (the difference that cold forging makes use of vertical presses instead of horizontal cold heading machines), the work piece is squeezed between two dies until it assumes the desired shape of the die.

Deformation occurs at room temperature, causing a change in the size and shape of the metal. Note here that this forging method is volume specific and generally compliments the cold heading processes by adding more intricate shapes to the blank used in cold heading processes.

Basic equipment types used for the forging method range to include vertical presses, either fully automatic or manually fed. Also note that these vertical presses used can be either hydraulically powered or mechanically powered.

A reliable and cost effective process, some of the parts produced using cold forging includes those for use in the automotive electrical industry and range to include:

  • Parts for car seats and alternators (such as the claw-pole)
  • Different types of gears used on other parts
  • Parts for starter motors such as transmission solenoid body, core and plunger, to name but a few examples)
  • Motorcycle parts such as those for flywheel magnetos
  • Parts that are hollow with shafts and stems
  • Parts used for valves and switches
  • Cold forging is also used to produce anti-vibration spiders and parts

Advantages of Cold Forgings

  • No heating is required
  • Better interchangeability, productivity
  • Superior dimensional control
  • High rates of production
  • Capability to impart directional properties onto the metal being formed
cold forging parts auto parts


Material Characteristics Application
Stainless Steel Corrosion-resistant
  • Used in steam turbines, pressure vessels, and other applications in petrochemical, medical, food processing industries.
  • Used at temperatures up to 1800 F under low stress and to 1250 F under high-stress.
Low Carbon and Low Alloy Steel Easily processed
Good mechanical properties
Low material cost
  • Widely used at temperature lower than 900 F.
HSLA/Microalloy Steel Good mechanical properties
Low material cost
Simple thermomechanical treatment
  • Mainly used at temperature lower than 400 F for structural and engine applications in the aircraft and transportation industries. 
Aluminum Good strength-to-weight ratio
Readily forged
  • Mainly used at temperature lower than 400 F for structural and engine applications in the aircraft and transportation industries. 
Nickel-Base Superalloy Oxidation resistance
Creep-rupture strength
  • Used at temperature between 1200 and 1800 F.
  • Used for structural shapes, turbine components, fittings, and valves. 
Titanium High strength
Low density
Excellent corrosion resistance
  • About 40% lighter in weight compared to steel parts.
  • Used primarily in the temperature services to 1000 F. 
  • Used for aircraft engine components and structures, ship components, and valves and fitting in transportation and chemical industries.

Secondary Operations and Heat Treatment of Cold Forgings

  • Punching, drilling, tapping, bending, milling
  • Painting, anodizing, black oxide, powder coating
  • Heat treatment

Cold Forging Parts