Forging 2018-01-16T21:35:36+00:00


What Is Forging?

As a major metal fabrication, forging is a metal forming technique that uses localized forces of compression. Forgings have undergone major changes that lead to more efficient, faster and more durable processes. Today’s forging is usually done using electric, hydraulic or compressed air driven forging presses or hammer tools.

hot forging parts

Cold Forging Vs. Hot Forging

There are two main types of forging — hot forging and cold forging. Hot forging and cold forging are two different metal forming processes that deliver similar results.

Hot forging requires the metal to be heated above its recrystallization temperature. This can mean heating metals up to 2,300 degrees Fahrenheit. The main benefit of hot forging is the decrease in energy required to form the metal properly. This is because excessive heat decreases yield strength and improves ductility. Hot forged products also benefit from the elimination of chemical inconsistencies.

Cold forging typically refers to forging a metal at room temperature, though any temperature below recrystallization is possible. Many metals, such as steel high in carbon, are simply too strong for cold forging. Despite this hindrance, cold forging does edge out its warmer equivalent when it comes to standards of dimensional control, product uniformity, surface finish and contamination. Cold forging encompasses numerous techniques, including bending, extruding, cold drawing and cold heading. However, this increased versatility comes at a cost, because cold forging requires more powerful equipment and may call for the use of intermediate anneals.

Advantages of Forging

  • Maintain grain flow of the metal
  • Retain the strength of metal
  • Elimination of defects, inclusions and porosity.
  • Relative low costs
  • High production output

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Material Characteristics Application
Stainless Steel Corrosion-resistant
  • Used in steam turbines, pressure vessels, and other applications in petrochemical, medical, food processing industries.
  • Used at temperatures up to 1800 F under low stress and to 1250 F under high-stress.
Low Carbon and Low Alloy Steel Easily processed
Good mechanical properties
Low material cost
  • Widely used at temperature lower than 900 F.
HSLA/Microalloy Steel Good mechanical properties
Low material cost
Simple thermomechanical treatment
  • Mainly used at temperature lower than 400 F for structural and engine applications in the aircraft and transportation industries. 
Aluminum Good strength-to-weight ratio
Readily forged
  • Mainly used at temperature lower than 400 F for structural and engine applications in the aircraft and transportation industries. 
Nickel-Base Superalloy Oxidation resistance
Creep-rupture strength
  • Used at temperature between 1200 and 1800 F.
  • Used for structural shapes, turbine components, fittings, and valves. 
Titanium High strength
Low density
Excellent corrosion resistance
  • About 40% lighter in weight compared to steel parts.
  • Used primarily in the temperature services to 1000 F. 
  • Used for aircraft engine components and structures, ship components, and valves and fitting in transportation and chemical industries.

Secondary Operations of Forging

  • Milling, drilling, tapping, e-coating, anodizing
  • Painting, sanding, shot blasting, powder coating, chrome plating

Cold Forging Parts and Hot Forging Parts

Our forging solutions include hot forging and cold forging. Please click links below for detailed information.